Our research is focused on hornbill biology, interactions between rats, seeds and rainforest trees, tree phenology, understanding patterns and processes in vegetation recovery following shifting cultivation. Past work has focused on monitoring threatened wildlife, understanding anthropogenic effects on wildlife, exploration surveys and management of reserves. Our work with communities has focused on addressing socio-economic needs to enable positive conservation outcomes.
Hornbill biology and conservation
Tropical forest interactions
Conservation education and outreach
Endangered bird distributions
Understanding distributions of White-bellied Heron and White-winged Duck
Linking rural energy and conservation
Linking rural energy and nature conservation in a tribal village
- Book ChapterIn pressTop-down or bottom-up: the role of the government and local institutions in regulating shifting cultivation in the Upper Siang district, Eastern Himalaya, India (in press)Shifting Cultivation and Environmental Change: Indigenous People, Agriculture and Forest Conservation (Ed: Malcolm Cairns), Published by Routledge.
- Journal Article2018Hornbill Watch: A citizen science initiative for Indian hornbillsIndian Birds, 14:65-70Download
PDF, 18.4 MB
Hornbills are conspicuous and well-known birds with nine species occurring in India. While several hornbill species have been studied extensively in some parts of India, there is a knowledge gap about their distribution, population size, and adaptations to rapidly changing habitats. Most research and conservation efforts are often focused on single or few species within protected areas. Hornbill Watch (henceforth, HW) is an online platform created specifically to record public sightings of hornbills from anywhere in India. The idea is to encourage birders, nature enthusiasts, and photographers to share information on hornbill presence, behaviour, and conservation-related issues. The main objective is to generate baseline information using sight records and enable long-term monitoring of these species by encouraging citizen participation. HW was launched in June 2014, and up to February 2017 had received 938 records from 430 contributors across India, from 26 States and three Union Territories. States from where most sightings were reported were Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh. Species were reported from both inside (41%), and outside Protected Areas (59%; henceforth, PA). Hornbills were reported from 70 PAs. Fifty-one records of nesting were reported for all species from inside and outside PAs, while 27 records of communal roosting were reported for some species. The data obtained thus far has yielded some useful information and insights,and has the potential for enhancing our understanding of current hornbill distribution patterns, and for identifying important sites for conservation/protection.
- Report2018Understanding impacts of hornbill loss on plants.Final report submitted to Arunachal Pradesh Forest Department, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh towards completion of the research project titled “Understanding Impacts of Hornbill Loss on Plants”.Download
PDF, 21.2 MB
While large avian frugivores are known to be key dispersers for large-seeded plants, their role in the wider plant-disperser networks is still poorly known. In this study, we evaluate the role of large avian frugivores in plant-disperser communities using network and seed dispersal effectiveness approaches in a tropical forest site in north-east India. We systematically-collected tree watch data from 46 plant species, representing 85 percent of typically bird-dispersed plant species, spanning over 2055 h. We found that the plant-disperser community was modular with a distinct community of large-sized seed plants and frugivores. While intermediate-sized birds such as barbets and bulbuls were the most connected, large-sized dispersers such as hornbills and Imperial-pigeons were moderately well-connected. Imperial-pigeons consistently fed on large-sized fruits, highlighting their importance for dispersal of large-seeded plants. In addition to frugivore-fruit size matching, frugivore dietary choices might play an important role in governing the organization of modules. There was a gradient in qualitative and quantitative roles played by different dispersers, with hornbills removing significantly larger number of fruits and consistently swallowing larger proportions of fruits as compared to other avian groups. Under simulated extinction scenarios, observed networks were far less resilient to disperser loss along a gradient of body size from large to small as compared to extinctions that were random or based on rarity. Given the paucity of information on plant-disperser networks from the South Asian region and reported local extinctions of large frugivores like hornbills, this study is important in highlighting that loss of large avian frugivores might have irreplaceable quantitative and qualitative damages to plant communities.
- Journal Article2018Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris in Anini, Arunachal PradeshIndian Birds 14(3): 90
- Report2017Hornbill Watch Report June 2014 to February 2017June 2017, www.hornbills.in
- Journal Article2016Field to a forest: Patterns of forest recovery following shifting cultivation in the Eastern HimalayaForest Ecology & Management http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.01.006
The patterns of vegetation recovery in shifting cultivation landscapes that undergo a cycle of clearing, cultivation and forest regeneration are not well understood in Asian tropical forests. We determined for- est recovery patterns by comparing species composition, richness and forest structure in early and late fallows formed following shifting cultivation and in an uncut forest site in a mid-elevation subtropical forest in the Indian Eastern Himalaya. We also examined changes in functional traits of tree species to understand recovery processes with succession. Tree species richness in the 12, 25 and 50-year old sites was 37%, 54% and 82% the value of the richness in uncut forest, respectively, while basal area was 33%, 25% and 41% of the value in uncut forest, respectively. Species composition recovery, however, was low; with even the oldest fallow (50-year fallow) being less than 50% similar to uncut forest in terms of composition. Successional sites that recover over long periods may differ compositionally from uncut forest within a shifting cultivation landscape as these forests are often prone to other anthropogenic dis- turbances. Functional trait analysis revealed that early fallows were colonized by tree species that are animal-dispersed, insect-pollinated with small fruits and seeds, whereas uncut forest and late succes- sional forests were dominated by species that were tall, self-dispersed, wind-pollinated and of high wood density that are dominant mature forest species in the Himalaya. These results are in contrast with the patterns in functional traits of tree species in successional sites from the Neotropics. This points to the importance of site-specificity in succession following shifting cultivation.
- Journal Article2016Shifting to settled cultivation: Changing practices among the Adis in Central Arunachal Pradesh, north-east IndiaAmbio doi 10.1007/s13280-016-0765-x
In the hilly tropics, although shifting cultivation is a widespread practice, government policies have attempted to replace it with other land-uses. However, several factors determine whether farming communities can make the shift. We tried understanding the factors that facilitate or impede the shift to settled cultivation through interviews with the Adi tribe in north-east India. Although settled cultivation was initiated in the sixties, about 90 % of the families practice shifting cultivation, observing 13 festivals associated with the annual agricultural calendar. Our results indicate that the economic status of a household affected the ability to undertake settled cultivation, while labour availability is important for shifting cultivation. Often, these nuances are ignored in government policies. We conclude that future policies should be mindful of cultural and socio-economic factors that affect the community and of the social-ecological resilience of the landscapes and not use a one-size-fits-all strategy.
- Dataset2016Data from: Spatial and temporal variation in hornbill densities in Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh, north-east IndiaDOI: doi:10.5061/dryad.qr068
- Dataset2016Data from: Field to a forest: patterns of forest recovery following shifting cultivation in the eastern Himalaya. Dryad Digital Repository.doi:10.5061/dryad.k83h6
- Report2016NCF Annual Report 2016